RadarURL
Skip to content
논문
2012.12.02 19:52

PSEUDOCODE STANDARD

조회 수 4710 추천 수 0 댓글 0
?

단축키

Prev이전 문서

Next다음 문서

크게 작게 위로 아래로 댓글로 가기 인쇄
?

단축키

Prev이전 문서

Next다음 문서

크게 작게 위로 아래로 댓글로 가기 인쇄

Pseudocode is a kind of structured english for describing algorithms. It allows the designer to focus on the logic of the algorithm without being distracted by details of language syntax.  At the same time, the pseudocode needs to be complete.  It describe the entire logic of the algorithm so that implementation becomes a rote mechanical task of translating line by line into source code.

In general the vocabulary used in the pseudocode should be the vocabulary of the problem domain, not of the implementation domain.  The pseudocode is a narrative for someone who knows the requirements (problem domain) and is trying to learn how the solution is organized.  E.g.,

Extract the next word from the line (good)
set word to get next token (poor)

Append the file extension to the name (good)
name = name + extension (poor)

FOR all the characters in the name (good)
FOR character = first to last (ok)

Note that the logic must be decomposed to the level of a single loop or decision. Thus "Search the list and find the customer with highest balance" is too vague because it takes a loop AND a nested decision to implement it. It's okay to use "Find" or "Lookup" if there's a predefined function for it such as String.indexOf().

Each textbook and each individual designer may have their own personal style of pseudocode. Pseudocode is not a rigorous notation, since it is read by other people, not by the computer. There is no universal "standard" for the industry, but for instructional purposes it is helpful if we all follow a similar style. The format below is recommended for expressing your solutions in our class.

The "structured" part of pseudocode is a notation for representing six specific structured programming constructs: SEQUENCE, WHILE, IF-THEN-ELSE, REPEAT-UNTIL, FOR, and CASE. Each of these constructs can be embedded inside any other construct. These constructs represent the logic, or flow of control in an algorithm.

It has been proven that three basic constructs for flow of control are sufficient to implement any "proper" algorithm.

SEQUENCE is a linear progression where one task is performed sequentially after another.
WHILE is a loop (repetition) with a simple conditional test at its beginning.
IF-THEN-ELSE is a decision (selection) in which a choice is made between two alternative courses of action.


Although these constructs are sufficient, it is often useful to include three more constructs:
 

REPEAT-UNTIL is a loop with a simple conditional test at the bottom.
CASE is a multiway branch (decision) based on the value of an expression. CASE is a generalization of IF-THEN-ELSE.
FOR is a "counting" loop.

SEQUENCE

Sequential control is indicated by writing one action after another, each action on a line by itself, and all actions aligned with the same indent. The actions are performed in the sequence (top to bottom) that they are written.

Example (non-computer)

Brush teeth
Wash face
Comb hair
Smile in mirror

Example

READ height of rectangle
READ width of rectangle
COMPUTE area as height times width

Common Action Keywords

Several keywords are often used to indicate common input, output, and processing operations.
Input: READ, OBTAIN, GET
Output: PRINT, DISPLAY, SHOW
Compute: COMPUTE, CALCULATE, DETERMINE
Initialize: SET, INIT
Add one: INCREMENT, BUMP

IF-THEN-ELSE

Binary choice on a given Boolean condition is indicated by the use of four keywords: IF, THEN, ELSE, and ENDIF. The general form is:

IF condition THEN
sequence 1
ELSE
sequence 2
ENDIF

The ELSE keyword and "sequence 2" are optional. If the condition is true, sequence 1 is performed, otherwise sequence 2 is performed.

Example

IF HoursWorked > NormalMax THEN
Display overtime message
ELSE
Display regular time message
ENDIF

WHILE

The WHILE construct is used to specify a loop with a test at the top. The beginning and ending of the loop are indicated by two keywords WHILE and ENDWHILE. The general form is:

WHILE condition
sequence
ENDWHILE

The loop is entered only if the condition is true. The "sequence" is performed for each iteration. At the conclusion of each iteration, the condition is evaluated and the loop continues as long as the condition is true.

Example

WHILE Population < Limit
Compute Population as Population + Births - Deaths
ENDWHILE

Example

WHILE employee.type NOT EQUAL manager AND personCount < numEmployees
INCREMENT personCount
CALL employeeList.getPerson with personCount RETURNING employee
ENDWHILE

CASE

A CASE construct indicates a multiway branch based on conditions that are mutually exclusive. Four keywords, CASE, OF, OTHERS, and ENDCASE, and conditions are used to indicate the various alternatives. The general form is:

CASE expression OF
condition 1 : sequence 1
condition 2 : sequence 2
...
condition n : sequence n
OTHERS:
default sequence
ENDCASE

The OTHERS clause with its default sequence is optional. Conditions are normally numbers or characters

indicating the value of "expression", but they can be English statements or some other notation that specifies the condition under which the given sequence is to be performed. A certain sequence may be associated with more than one condition.

Example

        CASE  Title  OF
                Mr      : Print "Mister"
                Mrs     : Print "Missus"
                Miss    : Print "Miss"
                Ms      : Print "Mizz"
                Dr      : Print "Doctor"
        ENDCASE

Example

        CASE  grade  OF
                A       : points = 4
                B       : points = 3
                C       : points = 2
                D       : points = 1
                F       : points = 0
        ENDCASE

REPEAT-UNTIL

This loop is similar to the WHILE loop except that the test is performed at the bottom of the loop instead of at the top. Two keywords, REPEAT and UNTIL are used. The general form is:

REPEAT
sequence
UNTIL condition

The "sequence" in this type of loop is always performed at least once, because the test is peformed after the sequence is executed. At the conclusion of each iteration, the condition is evaluated, and the loop repeats if the condition is false. The loop terminates when the condition becomes true.
 

FOR

This loop is a specialized construct for iterating a specific number of times, often called a "counting" loop.  Two keywords, FOR and ENDFOR are used. The general form is:

FOR iteration bounds
sequence
ENDFOR

In cases where the loop constraints can be obviously inferred it is best to describe the loop using problem domain vocabulary.

Example

FOR each month of the year (good)
FOR month = 1 to 12 (ok)

FOR each employee in the list (good)
FOR empno = 1 to listsize (ok)


NESTED CONSTRUCTS

The constructs can be embedded within each other, and this is made clear by use of indenting. Nested constructs should be clearly indented from their surrounding constructs.

Example

SET total to zero
REPEAT
READ Temperature
IF Temperature > Freezing THEN
    INCREMENT total
END IF
UNTIL Temperature < zero
Print total

In the above example, the IF construct is nested within the REPEAT construct, and therefore is indented.
 
 

INVOKING SUBPROCEDURES

Use the CALL keyword. For example:

CALL AvgAge with StudentAges
CALL Swap with CurrentItem and TargetItem
CALL Account.debit with CheckAmount
CALL getBalance RETURNING aBalance
CALL SquareRoot with orbitHeight RETURNING nominalOrbit


EXCEPTION HANDLING

    BEGIN
        statements
    EXCEPTION
        WHEN exception type
            statements to handle exception
        WHEN another exception type
            statements to handle exception
    END



Sample Pseudocode

"Adequate"

FOR X = 1 to 10

    FOR Y = 1 to 10
        IF gameBoard[X][Y] = 0
            Do nothing
        ELSE
            CALL theCall(X, Y) (recursive method)
            increment counter                 
        END IF
    END FOR
END FOR

"Better"

Set moveCount to 1
FOR each row on the board
    FOR each column on the board
        IF gameBoard position (row, column) is occupied THEN
            CALL findAdjacentTiles with row, column
            INCREMENT moveCount
        END IF
    END FOR
END FOR

(Note: the logic is restructured to omit the "do nothing" clause)



"Not So Good"

FOR all the number at the back of the array
    SET Temp equal the addition of each number
    IF > 9 THEN
        get the remainder of the number divided by 10 to that index
        and carry the "1"
    Decrement one
Do it again for numbers before the decimal
 

"Good Enough (not perfect)"

SET Carry to 0
FOR each DigitPosition in Number from least significant to most significant

    COMPUTE Total as sum of FirstNum[DigitPosition] and SecondNum[DigitPosition] and Carry  

    IF Total > 10 THEN
        SET Carry to 1
        SUBTRACT 10 from Total
    ELSE
        SET Carry to 0
    END IF

    STORE Total in Result[DigitPosition]

END LOOP  

IF Carry = 1 THEN
    RAISE Overflow exception
END IF
 



 

"Pretty Good"  This example shows how pseudocode is written as comments in the source file. Note that the double slashes are indented.

public boolean moveRobot (Robot aRobot)
{
    //IF robot has no obstacle in front THEN
        // Call Move robot
        // Add the move command to the command history
        // RETURN true
    //ELSE
        // RETURN false without moving the robot
    //END IF
}

Example Java Implementation

  • source code statements are interleaved with pseudocode.
  • comments that correspond exactly to source code are removed during coding.

public boolean moveRobot (Robot aRobot)
{
    //IF robot has no obstacle in front THEN
    if (aRobot.isFrontClear())
    {
        // Call Move robot
        aRobot.move();
        // Add the move command to the command history
        cmdHistory.add(RobotAction.MOVE);
        return true;
    }
    else // don't move the robot
    {
        return false;
    }//END IF
}
 

 



Document History

Date Author Change
12/2/03
JD
Added Exception Handling and more examples
2/21/03 JD Added "problem domain vocabulary" paragraph.
Modified FOR loop explanation.

 

출처 : http://users.csc.calpoly.edu/~jdalbey/SWE/pdl_std.html

?

공부 게시판

공부에 도움되는 글을 올려주세요.

List of Articles
번호 분류 제목 글쓴이 날짜 조회 수
공지 [공지] 공부 게시판 입니다. 처누 2003.08.17 828868
1172 소프트웨어 분산 시스템의 소개(JEUS & WebtoB) JaeSoo 2012.12.26 4893
1171 하드웨어 PC의 WOL 기능 설정하기 file JaeSoo 2012.12.26 4025
1170 자동차 네비게이션 AUX 선 연결시 알터노이즈에 대하여 JaeSoo 2012.12.25 4369
1169 자동차 AUX 노이즈 해결 알터노이즈 file JaeSoo 2012.12.25 4649
1168 하드웨어 Asrock P55 Pro 바이오스 설정 설명 file JaeSoo 2012.12.25 4297
1167 하드웨어 Vmware Bios Upgrade (No-Execute Memory Protection) JaeSoo 2012.12.25 4391
1166 취업 지방으로 이전하지 않는 공공기관 목록 JaeSoo 2012.12.18 5030
1165 취업 공공기관 지방이전 대상 기관 file JaeSoo 2012.12.18 4654
1164 웹 프로그래밍 구글 크롬 악성코드 주의와 파이어폭스 공격 사이트 보고 해결 방법 방문자와 운영자 대처 방법 file JaeSoo 2012.12.17 3620
1163 웹 프로그래밍 제로보드 XE에서 로그인 사용자와 가입한 사용자의 차이점은? JaeSoo 2012.12.14 3610
1162 취업 기간제근로자의 사용기간 제한 및 우선 고용 등 JaeSoo 2012.12.08 3483
1161 기타 좌우명의 유래로 유명한 최자옥의 '四殺' JaeSoo 2012.12.05 3947
1160 유닉스/리눅스 SULinux 2.0 APM 인스톨 툴 file JaeSoo 2012.12.05 5466
1159 유닉스/리눅스 SULinux 2.0 설치 가이드 file JaeSoo 2012.12.05 5510
1158 웹 프로그래밍 [Fedora9] Apache & PHP 설치 JaeSoo 2012.12.05 3466
1157 모바일 안드로이드폰 스크린 캡쳐!! file JaeSoo 2012.12.05 6996
1156 논문 Pseudo code 기반의 UML 툴에 대한 아이디어.. JaeSoo 2012.12.02 3628
» 논문 PSEUDOCODE STANDARD JaeSoo 2012.12.02 4710
1154 유닉스/리눅스 Micosoft Windows에서 리눅스를 coLinux!! file JaeSoo 2012.11.29 5050
1153 모바일 안드로이드폰 네이버 캘린더 위젯이 갑자기 안보임 JaeSoo 2012.11.26 6150
Board Pagination Prev 1 ... 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 ... 125 Next
/ 125

 

■ 즐겨찾기 - 가족
JAESOO's HOMEPAGE YOUNGAE's HOMEPAGE 장여은 홈페이지 장여희 홈페이지 장여원 홈페이지

■ 즐겨찾기 - 업무
알리카페 홀릭 숭실대 컴퓨터 통신연구실 (서창진) 말레이시아 KL Sentral 한국인 GuestHouse

■ 즐겨찾기 - 취미
어드민아이디 유에코 사랑회 아스가르드 좋은사람/나쁜사람 JServer.kr 제이서버 메타블로그 재수 티스토리

■ 즐겨찾기 - 강의, 커뮤니티
재수 강의 홈페이지 한소리 VTMODE.COM 숭실대 인공지능학과 숭실대 통신연구실


PageViews   Today : 2,211   Yesterday : 2,084   Total : 61,755,481  /  Counter Status   Today : 839   Yesterday : 812   Total : 3,453,671
Site Info   Member : 1,415  /  Total documents : 7,387   New documents : 0  /  Total comments : 528

design by by JAESOO.com

sketchbook5, 스케치북5

sketchbook5, 스케치북5

나눔글꼴 설치 안내


이 PC에는 나눔글꼴이 설치되어 있지 않습니다.

이 사이트를 나눔글꼴로 보기 위해서는
나눔글꼴을 설치해야 합니다.

설치 취소